Some Background:

Animals, like people require the same common things to survive:

Like people, animals need the above things also. Some are required to survive and others like the decorations just improve the look of the tank, or your house.


Shelter for fish is a place from the smaller ones to hide from the larger ones; or, the food to hide from the predators.


Light helps all animals build strong bones and aids in their development. Without light the fish, like people would loose their vitamin D.


Heat is needed by some species of fish to live. Those found in tropical waters could not live in the cold waters of the north.


Since fish live in the water, for the most part, do they really need it? The answer is yes. They get their oxygen from the water using their gills.


Fish, like people and other animals like to eat. It helps in growth and helps to maintain their body weight when full grown.


` A Simple Fish Bowl
A Simple Fish Bowl
` A Simple Glass 10 Gallon Tank
A Simple 10 Gallon Glass Fish Tank



There are many things that go into the selection of a filter system for any tank, either fresh or salt water. A lot depends upon the size of the tank, whether it's salt or fresh water and the amount and types of fish you plan on keeping.

Biological Filtration:

Fish produce ammonia as they convert oxygen to air from their gills as they breathe, and also as part of the waste released from their bodies. The ammonia needs to be removed from the tank frequently, as it is toxic to the fish.


It is common to have debris in a fish tank. This is due to excess food fed to the fish and other particles from the room. The mechanical process of a fish tank filter is meant to remove this debris and any other visible waste from the tank.


The water that we rely on for drinking and cooking comes from different sources. Some sources might contain hard metals or other materials which might be harmful to the fish. This creates the need for a filter that can remove such materials from the water.



There are many types of filter systems for your tank. Some hang on the back of the tank while others go under the gravel. There are still others that sit along side of the tank and others that sit under the tank.

They come in many sizes and shapes from those that work on a 10 gallon tank all the way up to ones that will service a million gallon tank.

They are round, square, rectangular, pear shaped and some odd shaped ones.

Some cost next to nothing, while others cost... well a lot. What you need depends again on the number of fish, size of the tank and the type of fish.

Types Of Filter Systems:



Lighting is an important, confusing and overlooked need for your aquarium.

Bright lights help you see whats going on in your aquarium. They also provide growth for your plants and fish., that's if your using live plants instead of plastic ones.

You need to decide on the type and quantity of fish and the type of live plants if you're going to use them. This will help you determine what type of lighting system best suits your needs.

Types of Lighting Systems:

Incandescent: will heat the water causing the water closest to the lights to be significantly warmer than water in other areas of the aquarium. Fluctuations in water temperatures can be harmful to some types of fish or might cause fish to swim exclusively in cooler areas of an aquarium.

LED: lights produce virtually no heat and come in many colors. They also last a lot longer.

Day And Night Lights: are used by all species of fish and aquarist. The 'moon lights' as they are called help the fish orient to night time life both in a river, creek or lake and in the ocean.

Tropical fish generally receive a longer light cycle, twelve hours as compared to other fresh water species. A simple time can be used to cycle most lights. You can also purchase a more expensive system that includes a built in timer.

Bright lights sometimes cause an algae bloom. Algae are a natural part of the aquarium. Excessive algae growth is not caused by bright light alone, it is caused by excessive nutrients in the aquarium water. Algae growth will often be excessive at the beginning of a new aquarium until the tank cycles.

Once live plants have established themselves, they will start competing with the algae for nutrients. It is always best to start with fast-growing plants or add fast-growing plants when the aquarium has an algae problem.

Green water algae bloom will sometimes occur on aquariums with bright lighting systems. In some cases, the algae bloom may go away on its own after a month of a new cycling aquarium. Green water is caused by single-cell algae that are suspended in the water column, thriving on nutrients in the aquarium.​

In some cases, the nutrients the algae may be thriving on may be coming from your tap water. The addition of a small ultraviolet sterilizer to the filtration system will eliminate any persistent green water, but thriving live plants will do the trick just the same.

Once the bright light system is well established with plants the algae should no longer be a problem. Many freshwater hobbyists with brightly lit planted tanks will report that they rarely have to clean algae off the tank walls. When the nutrient level is low, there is very little if any algae growth; however, a low-nutrient environment is a problem for growing healthy plants, so the addition of aquatic plant fertilizers may be necessary to keep your plants growing well.

They also help bring out the color in fish.


Yellowstone National Park sits on a subterranean chamber of molten rock and gasses so vast that it is arguably one of the largest active volcanoes in the world. A magma chamber not far below the surface fuels all the volcanic attractions that Yellowstone is famous for. The last major eruption at Yellowstone, some 640,000 years ago, ejected 8,000 times the ash and lava of Mount St. Helens. It is alive and well today, and is the scientific basis for the hilarious volcanic explosion seen in the movie 2012 that blew up Woody Harrelson and, NOT John Cusack. Not sure how that happened.


Heat from the mantle plume has melted rocks in the crust, and created two magma chambers of partially molten partially solid rock near Yellowstone’s surface. Heat from the shallowest magma chamber caused an area of the crust above it to expand and rise. Stress on the overlying crust resulted in increased earthquake activity along newly formed faults. Eventually, these faults reached the magma chamber and magma oozed through the cracks. Escaping magma released pressure within the chamber, which also allowed volcanic gasses to escape and expand explosively in a massive volcanic eruption. The eruption spewed copious volcanic ash and gas into the atmosphere and produced fast, super-hot debris flows (pyroclastic flows) over the existing landscape. As the underground magma chamber emptied, the ground above it collapsed and created the first of Yellowstone’s three calderas.

This eruption 2.1 million years ago—among the largest volcanic eruptions known to man—coated 5,790 square miles with ash, as far away as Missouri. The total volcanic material ejected is estimated to have been 6,000 times the volume of material ejected during the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens, in Washington.

A second significant, though smaller, volcanic eruption occurred within the western edge of the first caldera approximately 1.3 million years ago. The third and most recent massive volcanic eruption 640,000 years ago created the present 30- by 45-mile-wide Yellowstone Caldera. Since then, 80 smaller eruptions have occurred. Approximately 174,000 years ago, one of these created what is now the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake. During and after these explosive eruptions huge lava flows of viscous rhyolitic lava and less voluminous basalt lava flows partially filled the caldera floor and surrounding terrain. The youngest of these lava flows is the 70,000 year old Pitchstone rhyolite flow in the southwest corner of Yellowstone National Park.

Since the last of three caldera-forming eruptions, pressure from the shallow magma body has formed two resurgent domes inside the Yellowstone Caldera. Magma may be as little as 3–8 miles beneath Sour Creek Dome and 8–12 miles beneath Mallard Lake Dome, and both domes inflate and subside as the volume of magma or hydrothermal fluids changes beneath them. The entire caldera floor lifts up or subsides, too, but not as much as the two domes. In the past century, the net inflation has tilted the caldera floor toward the south. As a result, Yellowstone Lake’s southern shores have subsided and trees now stand in water, and the north end of the lake has risen into a sandy beach at Fishing Bridge.


Ground deformation has been documented along the central axis of the caldera between Old Faithful and White Lake in Pelican Valley in historic time. Surveys of suspected ground deformation began in 1975 using vertical-motion surveys of benchmarks in the ground. By 1985 the surveys documented unprecedented uplift of the entire caldera in excess of a meter (3 ft). Later GPS measurements revealed that the caldera went into an episode of subsidence (sinking) until 2005 when the caldera returned to an episode of extreme uplift. The largest vertical movement was recorded at the White Lake GPS station, inside the caldera’s eastern rim, where the total uplift from 2004 to 2010 was about 27 centimeters (10.6 in).

The rate of rise slowed in 2008 and the caldera began to subside again during the first half of 2010. The uplift is believed to be caused by the movement of deep hydrothermal fluids or molten rock into the shallow crustal magma system at a depth of about 10 km beneath the surface. A caldera may undergo episodes of uplift and subsidence for thousands of years without erupting. Notably, changes in uplift and subsidence have been correlated with increases of earthquake activity. Lateral discharge of these fluids away from the caldera, and the accompanying earthquakes, subsidence, and uplift relieves pressure and could act as a natural pressure release valve balancing magma recharge and keeping Yellowstone safe from volcanic eruptions.

The Future:

WILL YELLOWSTONE ERUPT AGAIN? That is the question. There are many debates on this. Some say it will defintly erupt over the next thousand or several thousand years. But what about in the next several hundred or sooner. The park service says no and the USGS points out. "Odds are very high that Yellowstone will be eruption-free for the coming centuries."

It's also worth noting that the volcanic hotspot underneath Yellowstone is slowly migrating to the northeast (or, more accurately, the North American tectonic plate above the hotspot is migrating southwest).

On a long enough time scale, the hotspot will move out from under Yellowstone — and the Yellowstone super volcano would, presumably, die out. Of course, it's possible that another super volcano could emerge further in the northeast, but the hotspot would first have to heat up and melt the cold crust first. And that process could take a million years or longer.

The Long Valley Caldera

Second only to Yellowstone in North America is the Long Valley caldera, in east-central California. The 200-square-mile caldera is just south of Mono Lake, near the Nevada state line. The biggest eruption from Long Valley was 760,000 years ago, which unleashed 2,000 to 3,000 times as much lava and ash as Mount St. Helens, after which the caldera floor dropped about a MILE, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the ash reached as far east as Nebraska.

What worries geologists today was a swarm of strong earthquakes in 1980 and the 10-inch rise of about 100 square miles of the caldera floor. Then, in the early 1990's, large amounts of carbon dioxide gas from magma below began seeping up through the ground and killing trees in the Mammoth Mountain part of the caldera. When these sorts of signs are present, it could mean trouble is centuries, decades, or even YEARS away, say volcanologists.

The Valles Caldera

The 175-square-mile Valles caldera forms a large pock in the middle of northern New Mexico, west of Santa Fe. It last exploded 1.2 million and 1.6 million years ago, piling up 150 cubic miles of rock and blasting ash as far away as Iowa. As with other calderas, there are still signs of heat below: hot springs are still active around Valles.

Geologists suspect the cause of Valles caldera has something to do with how the western United States' portion of the North American tectonic plate is being pulled apart.

Lake Toba Caldera

The 1,080-square-mile Toba caldera in North Sumatra, Indonesia is the only supervolcano in existence that can be described as Yellowstone's "big" sister. About 74,000 years ago, Toba erupted and ejected several thousand times more materials than what had erupted from Mount St. Helens in 1980. Some researchers think that Toba's ancient super-eruption and the global cold spell it triggered might explain a mystery in the human genome.

The Taupo Caldera

New Zealand's Taupo caldera has been filled by water, creating what many describe as one of the world's most beautiful landscapes, but the lake itself was created by a massive eruption 26,500 years ago. The caldera — the collapsed and subsided basin left after the huge eruption — became today's lake. But Taupo is not dead. The 485-square-mile caldera let loose again in the year A.D. 181, with estimates of ash and magma reaching as high as 22 cubic miles.

Today, there are plenty of signs of current volcanic activity in the form of hot springs and venting.

The Aira Caldera

One of the most troubling calderas in the world is the 150-square-mile Aira caldera in southern Japan, on the edge of which sits the city of Kagoshima. 22,000 years ago 14 cubic miles of material spit out of the ground formed the Aira caldera, which is now largely Kagoshima Bay. That is equal to about 50 Mount St. Helens eruptions.

The Sakura-jima volcano, which forms part of the Aira caldera, has been active on and off for the past century and still causes earthquakes today, indicating that the caldera itself is far from sleeping.

The El Garita Caldera

Garita Caldera is a large super volcanic caldera in the San Juan volcanic field in the San Juan Mountains near the town of Creede in southwestern Colorado, United States. The eruption that created the La Garita Caldera is among the largest known volcanic eruptions in Earth’s history.

The La Garita Caldera is one of a number of calderas that formed during a massive flare-up in Colorado, Utah and Nevada from 40–18 million years ago, and was the site of massive eruptions about 28.01±0.04 million years ago, during the Oligocene Epoch.

The scale of La Garita volcanism was the second greatest of the Cenozoic Era. The resulting ash flows the volcano created, most notably the “Fish Canyon Tuff” has a volume of approximately 1,200 cubic miles (5,000 km3), giving it a Volcanic Explosivity Index rating of 8. By comparison, the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 was 0.25 cubic miles (1.0 km3) in volume.

The Cerro Guacha Caldera

Cerro Guacha is a Miocene caldera in southwestern Bolivia’s Sur Lípez Province. Part of the volcanic system of the Andes, it is considered to be part of the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), one of the three volcanic arcs of the Andes, and its associated Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex (APVC).

Cerro Guacha and the other volcanoes of that region are formed from the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South America plate. Above the subduction zone, the crust is chemically modified and generates large volumes of melts that form the local caldera systems of the APVC.

Two major ignimbrites, the 5.6-5.8 mya Guacha ignimbrite with a volume of 1,300 cubic kilometres (310 cu mi) and the 3.5-3.6 mya Tara ignimbrite with a volume of 800 cubic kilometres (190 cu mi) have erupted from Cerro Guacha. More recent activity occurred 1.7 mya and formed a smaller ignimbrite with a volume of 10 cubic kilometres (2.4 cu mi).

The larger caldera has dimensions of 60 by 40 kilometres (37 mi × 25 mi) with a rim altitude of 5,250 metres (17,220 ft). Extended volcanic activity has generated two nested calderas, a number of lava domes and lava flows and a central resurgent dome.

The Cerro Galan Caldera

Cerro Galán is a caldera in the Catamarca Province of Argentina. It is one of the largest exposed calderas in the world and forms part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes.

Volcanic activity at Galán is the indirect consequence of the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South America Plate.

The caldera was active between 5.6 and 4.51 million years ago with the largest eruption occurring 2.08 ± 0.02 million years ago producing 1,050 km3 of deposits.

The Island Park Caldera

The Island Park Caldera crosses the borders of Idaho and Wyoming in the United States and is one of the world’s largest calderas, with approximate dimensions of 80 by 65 km.

The eruptions ash fall is the source of the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff that is found from southern California to the Mississippi River near St. Louis. This super-eruption of approximately 2,500 km3 (600 cu mi) occurred 2.1 Ma (million years ago) and produced 2,500 times as much ash as the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.

The Island Park Caldera is sometimes referred to as the First Phase Yellowstone Caldera or the Huckleberry Ridge Caldera.

The Vilama Caldera

Vilama is a Miocene caldera in Bolivia and Argentina. Straddling the border between the two countries, it is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the four volcanic belts in the Andes. Vilama is remote and forms part of the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex, a province of large calderas and associated ignimbrites that were active since about 8 million years ago, sometimes in the form of super volcanoes.

Vilama is the source of the enormous Vilama ignimbrite, which was emplaced during an eruption with a volcanic explosivity index of 8 about 8.4–8.5 million years ago. A large amount of the Vilama ignimbrite is inside the caldera depression, while the part outside of the caldera covers a surface area exceeding 4,000 square kilometres (1,500 sq mi). The total volume of the ignimbrite is about 1,200–1,800 cubic kilometres (290–430 cu mi), possibly as much as 2,100 cubic kilometres (500 cu mi). Another large ignimbrite, the Sifon ignimbrite, may also have been erupted by Vilama, while the Granada ignimbrite was later attributed to a separate volcano.

The La Pacana Caldera

La Pacana is a Miocene age caldera in northern Chile’s Antofagasta Region. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is part of the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex, a major caldera and silicic ignimbrite volcanic field.

La Pacana along with other regional volcanoes was formed by the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate in the Peru-Chile Trench. La Pacana is responsible for the eruption of the giant Atana ignimbrite, which reaches a volume of 2,451–3,500 cubic kilometres (588–840 cu mi) and constitutes the fifth-largest explosive eruption known. The Atana ignimbrite was erupted 3.8 ± 0.1 and 4.2 ± 0.1 million years ago, almost simultaneously with the much smaller (volume of 180 cubic kilometres (43 cu mi)) Toconao ignimbrite.

The Pastos Grandes Caldera

Pastos Grandes is the name of a nested caldera and crater lake in Bolivia which is around 35 by 40 kilometres (22 mi × 25 mi) wide and has a maximum depth of 400 metres (1,300 ft).

The caldera is part of the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex, a large ignimbrite province that is part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes.

Pastos Grandes has erupted a number of ignimbrites through its history, some of which exceeded a volume of 1,000 cubic kilometres (240 cu mi). After the ignimbrite phase, the lava domes of the Cerro Chascon-Runtu Jarita complex were erupted close to the caldera and along faults.

Pictures of Yellowstone

` Yellowstone Geogrophic Layout
Yellowstone Geographic Layout
` Yellowstones Old Faithful Erupting
Yellowstone's Old Faithful
` Yellowstone Mud Volcano
Yellowstone Mud Volcano
` What an Eruption Might Look Like
What An Eruption Might Look Like

Pictures of Long Valley CA

` Long Valley Geographic Layout
Long Valley Geographic Layout
` Long Valley Picture
Long Valley Picture
` Long Valley Hot Spring
Long Valley Hot Spring

Pictures of Valles Caldera NM

` Valles Geographic Layout
Valles Geographic Layout
` Valles Picture
Valles Picture

Pictures of Toba Caldera Sumatra

` Toba Eruption
Toba Eruption
` Toba Mass Eruption
Toba Mass Eruption
` Lake Toba Picture
Lake Toba Picture

Pictures of Taupo Caldera New Zealand

` Taupo Geographic LAyout
Taupo Geographic Layout
` Taupo Past Picture
Taupo's Past Picture
` Taupo Coming Awake Picture
Taupo's Coming Awake Picture

Pictures of Aira Caldera

` Aira Geographic Layout
Aira Geographic Layout
` Aira Erupting Picture
Aira Erupting Picture
` Aira Picture
Aira Picture


  1. Wikipedia